Resources & Links


Georeferencing Mapping Resource Hub site for materials, methods, tutorials (VertNet)
Georeferencing Quick Reference Guide, concise guidelines for all aspects of georeferencing; reference protocol for GLOBAL project
Georeferencing Best Practices very complete manual for all things georeference, also available as PDF (GBIF, Chapman and Wieczorek, 2020)
GeoLocate and Training
iDigBio Georef. Working Group Video Tutorials tutorials
MaNIS/HerpNet/ORNIS Georef. Guidelines about assigning geographic coordinates, and maximum error distances to locality descriptions
California Phenology Network, concise training videos using GeoLocate. See also their Resources page for other material
Extracting Duplicate Georeferences from Herbarium Specimen Data Duplicate Clustering Tool in Symbiota to create output file of known duplicates with coordinates
LSU Herbarium Georeferencing Guide’s guide to georeferencing fields along with links and notes
Georeferencing Tools Available for GLOBAL of georeferencing tools for the GLOBAL project


Collaborative Georferencing with CoGe by Nelson Rios at the Tulane Univ Biodiv Inst. Product produced for the EPICC TCN
Georeferencing in CoGe outlining steps to work in the CoGe web portal


GeoNames Geographical Database names; advanced search has option for fuzzy names
World Places Map Directory
ACME Mapper general purpose mapping application; 3.0 has hiking trails layer
Mindat.org world’s largest open database of minerals, rocks, meteorites and the localities they come from; great for mountains and mine sites
Geographic.org, names, geology, climate, statistics info
Nations Online Project, names, languages
Gazeteer of the Antarctic, Nat Sci Fdn place names and coords (Datum unknown)

Mapping – Historical

British Library Historic Maps, documents, etc.
David Rumsey Historical Map Collection collection focuses on rare 16th through 21st century maps of North and South America, as well as maps of the World, Asia, Africa, Europe, and Oceania.

Geographic Names

Wikipedia, of course
Statoids administrative divisions of countries; endonyms and exonyms included. The “details ” page lists more general reference sites
Countries and Names of the World countries of the world in their own languages and writing systems; with official names, capitals, flags, coats of arms, political divisions, national anthems, and translations of the countries and capitals into many languages
Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names (TGN) TGN includes names and associated information about places. Places in TGN include administrative political entities and physical features. Current and historical places are included.
Falling Rain of cities and towns in world
CIA World Fact Book World Factbook provides information on geography, etc.
Historical Countries – Nations Online Project of formerly used country names and names of countries which have ceased to exist. Name changes of countries, dependencies, geographical and other regions of particular geopolitical interest.

Country/Location Specific Guides

Bonzle Digital Atlas of Australia list of Australian regions, cities, localities, etc.
Brazil – Explanation of Roads Markers Explanation numbering format for Brazilian road markers
German place + names former Czechoslovakia of historic and current names
Japan Databasing Guide to Japanese place names

Coordinate Conversion

Earthpoint conversion, topographic maps–subscription not necessary for many tools
Public Lands Survey System maps and more


Google Translate


Botanist Index-Harvard Univ. for info on collectors and their areas of specialty–be sure to check box for ‘Find similar sounding names’
Why georeferencing matters: Introducing a practical protocol to prepare species occurrence records for spatial analysis article exploring georeferencing protocols

If you have any questions or other resources to add, please email Julie Smith at: